HEALTH GUIDE | DIABETES MELLITUS, WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT DIABETES?

by:

G-Writes

Hey guys, today we are going to enlighten ourselves about diabetics which is a common disease condition is about 70% of our households. So let’s go on a journey of what diabetics is, what causes it and how it can be prevented.

Diabetes Mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar includes frequent urination, increased thirst and increased hunger.

Diabetes occurs when there is deficiency in the insulin level I’m the body and these can be in two forms;
•The body does not produce enough insulin(insufficient insulin)
•The insulin produced by the body is defective and cannot do it’s work.

The insulin produced by the body regulates glucose uptake and it’s transport via the blood to most cells in the body, the adipose tissues, the livers and muscles. When the insulin is either insufficient or deficient, then glucose will not be absorbed properly by the body cells that require it, and it will not be stored appropriately in the liver and muscles. The net effect is persistently high levels of blood glucose, poor protein synthesis, and other metabolic derangements, such as acidosis (abnormal increase in acidity of the blood).

Increase in blood glucose concentration overtime will make the kidneys reach a threshold of reabsorption , and glucose will be excreted in the urine ( glycosuria ). [58] This increases the osmotic pressure of the urine and inhibits reabsorption of water by the kidney, resulting in increased urine production ( polyuria ) and increased fluid loss. Lost blood volume will be replaced osmotically from water held in body cells and other body compartments, causing dehydration and increased thirst ( polydipsia ) and this causes diabetes in the long run.
So, diabetes is caused by insufficient or deficient insulin.

TYPES OF DIABETES
Diabetes can be classified into
*Type 1 diabetes
*Type 2 diabetes
*Type 3 diabetes

*TYPE 1 DIABETES
Type 1 diabetes results from failure of pancreas to produce enough insulin. It was previously termed “insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (IDDM) or “juvenile diabetes”(It starts mostly during childhood). It is partly inherited.

*TYPE 2 DIABETES
Type 2 diabetes has an onset of insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly(insulin deficiency) As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop. [9] This form was previously referred to as “non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (NIDDM) or “adult-onset diabetes”(It starts at adulthood).

GESTATIONAL DIABETES
Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy, it occurs in about 2-10% of pregnancies and may improve or disappear after pregnancy.

CAUSES
*Genetic
*Lifestyle(alcohol, smoking)
*Obesity
*Infections
*Certain drugs

Note that type 1 diabetes has no cause.

COMPLICATIONS
*cardiovascular disease(disease of the heart, blood and blood vessels.)
*Macrovascular disease(stroke, disease of the peripheral artery)
*Diabetit neuropathy (damage to the kidney)
*Diabetic retinopathy(damage to the eye)
*Diabetic foot ulcer

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
*weight loss
*Polyuria(increased urination)
*Polydipsia(increased thirst)
*Fatigue
*Headache
*Slow healing of cut
*Itchy skin

TREATMENT
It is important to know that diabetes cannot be cured but can be well managed and lived with fantastically. Treatment or Management involves;
*Concentrating on keeping the blood sugar low;Through weight loss, exercise, alcohol avoidance and used medications(insulin)
*Lifestyle; Saying no to alcohol and smoking, good nutrition to achieve a normal body weight
*Medications; Glucose control(insulin), Metformin
*Blood Pressure; Keeping a blood pressure of less than or equal to somewhere between 140/90mmHg to 160/100mmHg.
*Surgery; Encouraged in those with obesity to remove the fat

 

Thank you for stopping by for Health Guide  with– Oyebisi Oyelami

IG – @queenitee

See you next time. 

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